How is translation controlled in eukaryotes? Translation can be regulated globally (for every mRNA in the cell) through changes in the availability or activity of the “helper” proteins. For example, in order for translation to begin, a protein called eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2) must bind to a part of the ribosome called the small subunit.
What is responsible for regulating translation? Role in Disease
The eIF4E inhibitory protein regulates the initiation of translation by interacting with eIF4E, which in turn regulates the rate of translation. This regulation of eIF4E inhibitory proteins has a profound effect on cell growth, development, cancer, and neurobiology.
How does translation occur in eukaryotes? In eukaryotes, transcription and translation take place in different cellular compartments: transcription takes place in the membrane-bounded nucleus, whereas translation takes place outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. Indeed, the translation of bacterial mRNA begins while the transcript is still being synthesized.
How is translation regulated in prokaryotes? Translation in prokaryotes is usually regulated by blocking access to the initiation site. This is accomplished via base-paired structures (within the mRNA itself, or between the mRNA and a small trans-acting RNA) or via mRNA-binding proteins.
How is translation controlled in eukaryotes? – Related Questions
What causes translational control of gene expression?
mRNA-specific translational control is driven by RNA sequences and/or structures that are commonly located in the untranslated regions of the transcript. These features are usually recognized by regulatory proteins or micro RNAs (miRNAs).
At what stages can translation be regulated?
The process of translation can be divided into initiation, elongation, termination, and ribosome recycling. Most regulation is exerted at the first stage, where the AUG start codon is identified and decoded by the methionyl tRNA specialized for initiation (Met-tRNAi).
What are some examples of translational regulation?
(A) Repression of translation by binding of a metabolite that stabilizes an alternative mRNA secondary structure and leaves the SD sequence and initiation codon (AUG) in a base-paired region.
What are the 3 steps of translation?
Translation of an mRNA molecule by the ribosome occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.
Where does translation occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotic transcription and translation occur simultaneously in the cytoplasm, and regulation occurs at the transcriptional level. Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated during transcription and RNA processing, which take place in the nucleus, and during protein translation, which takes place in the cytoplasm.
What is translation process?
Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes.
Which antibiotic inhibits translation in eukaryotes?
Among the known inhibitors of eukaryotic translation is cycloheximide (CHX, 1), the most common laboratory reagent used to inhibit protein synthesis (Fig. 1). CHX has been shown to block the elongation phase of eukaryotic translation.
What is the difference between gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Therefore, in prokaryotic cells, the control of gene expression is mostly at the transcriptional level. Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated during transcription and RNA processing, which take place in the nucleus, and during protein translation, which takes place in the cytoplasm.
How is gene expression regulated in eukaryotes?
Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is regulated by repressors as well as by transcriptional activators. Like their prokaryotic counterparts, eukaryotic repressors bind to specific DNA sequences and inhibit transcription. Other repressors compete with activators for binding to specific regulatory sequences.
What is an example of translational control of gene expression?
Translational control mechanisms are, besides transcriptional control and mRNA stability, the most determining for final protein levels. An interesting example of translational control is the switch between cap-independent and cap-dependent translation during the eukaryotic cell cycle.
How is translation controlled?
Translation can be regulated globally (for every mRNA in the cell) through changes in the availability or activity of the “helper” proteins. For example, in order for translation to begin, a protein called eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2) must bind to a part of the ribosome called the small subunit.
What are the three post transcriptional modifications?
The three post-transcriptional modifications are: 5′ capping, poly A tail addition, and splicing.
Is mRNA destroyed after translation?
Messenger RNA (mRNA) mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. Once mRNAs enter the cytoplasm, they are translated, stored for later translation, or degraded. All mRNAs are ultimately degraded at a defined rate.
What is the end result of translation?
The amino acid sequence is the final result of translation, and is known as a polypeptide. Polypeptides can then undergo folding to become functional proteins.
How can translation initiation be regulated?
Initiation of translation is regulated by the accessibility of ribosomes to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. This stretch of four to nine purine residues are located upstream the initiation codon and hybridize to a pyrimidine-rich sequence near the 3′ end of the 16S RNA within the 30S bacterial ribosomal subunit.
What is the first line of regulation?
The first line owns regulatory quality control of its products, services, and operations. It should have built-in procedures in all of its processes that ensure that regulatory requirements are followed for all of its product lines. Disclosures must be provided, deadlines must be met.
Do bacteria have translational control?
In bacteria, translational control ensures rapid response to changes in environmental cues, which is then followed by global changes in cell physiology, including adjustments in transcriptional profiles, alterations in ribosome biogenesis, and switching to ribosome hibernation programs.
Where does post-translational regulation occur?
Proteins may be modified after their synthesis, folding, and assembly – this process is known as post-translational modification. A number of post-translational modifications have been found to occur within cells. In general where a protein can be modified that modification can be reversed.
What are the 4 steps of translation?
Translation happens in four stages: activation (make ready), initiation (start), elongation (make longer) and termination (stop). These terms describe the growth of the amino acid chain (polypeptide). Amino acids are brought to ribosomes and assembled into proteins.
Is statement true of translation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Translation is a universal process occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The fundamental process of translation is same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Members of both groups uses information present in mRNA, which is came from the DNA by transcription, to synthesize proteins with ribosome as the machinery.
Which step in translation is significantly different between eukaryotes and bacteria?
Translation has three main stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. These differ slightly in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms: in prokaryotes, translation occurs in the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotes, translation takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum.